<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/css/video-js.min.css?v=1"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/article/css/base.css?v=5"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/article/css/index.css?v=35"><link rel="stylesheet" href="https://ysz-web.yxj.org.cn/live/dist/static/base/index.css?ysz_v=2.0"><script src="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/js/dsbridge.js?v=13" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="https://ysz-web.yxj.org.cn/dsBridge/main.js?v=26" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="https://ysz-web.yxj.org.cn/live/dist/static/base/fun.js?ysz_v=3" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="https://ysz-web.yxj.org.cn/live/dist/static/js/nativeToWeb.js?v=1" type="text/javascript"></script><div id="ysz-header" style="margin:0;overflow:hidden;"><h1 style="font-size:24px;line-height:1.8;color:#333333;word-wrap:break-word;">首个《带状疱疹疫苗预防接种专家共识》发布</h1><h2 style="font-size:16px;color:#999999;word-wrap:break-word;"><em style="font-style:normal;margin-right:10px;color:#7f7f7f;display:inline-block;">2022-04-27</em><em style="font-style:normal;margin-right:10px;color:#7f7f7f;display:inline-block;">吴佩芝</em><em style="font-style:normal;margin-right:10px;color:#7f7f7f;display:inline-block;">原创:药葫芦娃</em></h2></div><section style="margin: 10px 0px 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, &quot;PingFang SC&quot;, &quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei UI&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(89, 89, 89); font-size: 16px; letter-spacing: 1.5px; visibility: visible; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">近日,《中华医学杂志》发表了我国首个《带状疱疹疫苗预防接种专家共识》(以下简称《共识》),明确推荐年龄在50岁及以上且免疫功能正常的人群接种带状疱疹疫苗。</span></section></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">带状疱疹,民间称为“缠腰龙”,好发于中老年人,发作时疼痛难忍,可为烧灼样、电击样、刀割样、针刺样或撕裂样,可以一种性质的疼痛为主,也可以多种性质的疼痛并存。</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">《共识》指出,现今带状疱疹的治疗多以抗病毒及对症治疗为主,尚无特效药,而接种疫苗是最有效可行的预防手段。</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">那么,如何正确认识带状疱疹?怎样进行疫苗接种呢?</span></section><section><br/></section></section><section><section style="text-align: center;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" src="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/AC14B01A01806968378BC1E06DBF8146.jpg" alt="图片" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; box-sizing: border-box; vertical-align: middle; width: 462.698px; overflow-wrap: break-word ; visibility: visible ;"/></section></section><section><section><br/></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">带状疱疹,是由长期潜伏在脊髓后根神经节或颅神经节内的水痘-带状疱疹病毒(VZV)经再激活引起的感染性疾病。带状疱疹的发生与年龄增长、细胞免疫缺陷等原因密切相关。发生带状疱疹后神经痛是其最重要的并发症,患者可出现显著的疼痛和不适,可能持续数周、数月,严重者数年,降低生活质量。<br/></span></section><section><br/></section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-title-one" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; font-weight: bold; color: rgb(215, 0, 15); text-align: left;">正确认识 走出误区</span></p></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">误区1: 带状疱疹不会传染!</span></strong></p></section></section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">患者的水疱液含有感染性病毒颗粒,可使易感者感染后发生水痘,但不直接引发带状疱疹。所以,带状疱疹是有传染性的,但传染力低于水痘。<br/></span></p><section><section><br/></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">误区2: 得过带状疱疹就可以终身免疫!</span></strong></p></section></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">患者痊愈后无法在根源上防止病毒重新被激活,仍面临再次或多次复发的可能。</span></p><section><section><br/></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">误区3: 年纪大了才会得带状疱疹。</span></strong></p></section></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">儿童、青年、中年人群也会发病,虽然比较少见。带状疱疹的发病率随着年龄的增长而增加,50岁开始发病率上升明显。</span></p><section><section><br/></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">误区4: 得过水痘就不会长带状疱疹了。</span></strong></p></section></section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">恰恰相反,得过水痘的人是带状疱疹的高发人群。水痘和带状疱疹是一对亲兄弟,都是由VZV感染引起的疾病。初次感染主要发生在幼儿期,可引起水痘或隐形感染。感染控制后,一部分比较狡猾的病毒会潜伏起来“卧薪尝胆”,等待时机“揭竿起义”,就会引起带状疱疹了。</span></p><section><p><br/></p><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-title-one" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; font-weight: bold; color: rgb(215, 0, 15); text-align: left;">接种疫苗&nbsp;有效预防</span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><p style="text-align: center;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" src="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/AC14B01A018069683937F6B47AF0CE3F.jpg" alt="图片" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: bottom; width: 496.646px; box-sizing: border-box ; overflow-wrap: break-word ; visibility: visible ;"/></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">接种疫苗是预防带状疱疹最有效可行的措施。</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">目前,全球上市使用的带状疱疹疫苗有两种,分别为带状疱疹减毒活疫苗(ZVL) 和重组带状疱疹疫苗(RZV)。ZVL未在我国大陆获批,葛兰素史克研发的RZV于2019年5月在我国获批上市,成为国内唯一获批的带状疱疹疫苗。</span></p><p style="text-align: center;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" height="757" width="1000" src="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/AC14B01A018069683ADB79087C93A0BE.jpg" alt="图片" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: bottom; width: 438.594px; box-sizing: border-box ; overflow-wrap: break-word ; visibility: visible ;"/></p><section><p><br/></p></section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q1: 重组带状疱疹疫苗的适应人群有哪些?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">不同国家推荐的接种人群不同,目前我国批准用于50岁及以上成人预防带状疱疹,但不可用于预防原发性水痘。</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q2: 重组带状疱疹疫苗保护效力如何?</span></strong></section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">保护率较高, 在年龄≥ 50 岁受试者中保护效力为97.2%。</span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q3: 重组带状疱疹疫苗保护效力可以维持多久?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">疫苗保护效力4 年内无明显下降,由于上市的时间较短,确切时间待研究。</span></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q4: 重组带状疱疹疫苗安全吗?接种后会有什么不良反应?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">不良反应相对较轻,较常见的局部不良反应包括接种部位疼痛、红斑及肿胀。全身不良反应包括肌痛、乏力、头痛、寒颤、发热和胃肠系统症状。严重不良反应发生率非常低,总体来说安全性良好。</span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q5: 得过带状疱疹,还有必要接种重组带状疱疹疫苗吗?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">因带状疱疹可复发,推荐既往得过带状疱疹的人群接种重组带状疱疹疫苗。</span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q6: 接种过水痘疫苗或得过水痘,还需要接种重组带状疱疹疫苗吗?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">无论是否接种水痘疫苗,都可以接种重组带状疱疹疫苗。而得过水痘的人,是带状疱疹的高发人群,更应该接种重组带状疱疹疫苗。</span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q7: 接种重组带状疱疹疫苗,反而会得带状疱疹吗?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">不会,它是重组疫苗,不是完整的病毒。</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">Q8: 可以用水痘疫苗预防带状疱疹吗?</span></strong></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><br/></span></p><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">目前我国水痘疫苗批准用于预防水痘,不能用于预防带状疱疹。水痘疫苗和带状疱疹减毒活疫苗含有相同的减毒活病毒,区别在于每剂疫苗的病毒噬斑形成单位数量和注射剂量不同。</span></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section></section><section style="text-align: center;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" src="https://studioyszimg.yxj.org.cn/AC14B01A018069683C2924D511FE6545.jpg" alt="图片" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; vertical-align: bottom; box-sizing: border-box ; overflow-wrap: break-word ; width: 677px ; visibility: visible ;"/></section><p><br/></p><section style="text-align: justify;"><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">接种带状疱疹疫苗还需注意以下几点:</span></section></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><br/></p></section></section></section></section><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">患有常见疾病,如高血压、血脂异常、糖尿病、冠心病、哮喘、呼吸系统疾病、肾脏疾病等的患者及免疫功能低下人群都可以接种重组带状疱疹疫苗。</span></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><br/></p></section></section></section></section><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">孕妇和哺乳期妇女因目前暂无研究数据,应避免接种。</span></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><br/></p></section></section></section></section><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">对疫苗的活性成分或任何辅料成分过敏者禁用。</span></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><br/></p></section></section></section></section><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">不应在带状疱疹急性发作期间接种。</span></section><section style="text-align: justify;"><section><section><section><section><p style="text-align: justify;"><br/></p></section></section></section></section><span class="ysz-ueditor-content" style="font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">有急性症状的患者应延缓接种。</span></section></section><!--auditorInfo-->

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